Another excellent issue of Agriculture and Human Values

AHV_10460According to InCites Journal Citation Reports, the 2017 Impact Factor for Agriculture and Human Values is 2.568. The Impact Factor is calculated as the ratio of the number of citations to articles published in the journal in the previous two years to the total number of articles published in those years. The five year Impact Factor for the journal is 3.348. The Impact Factor has increased every year since 2012.

Another issue of Agriculture and Human Values (volume 25, issue 3) has been released online and in print. Here is a summary of the articles it contains: O’Keeffe evaluates how the deregulation of Australia’s wheat export market and the resulting focus on maximizing wheat prices affected wheat growing farmers. Cairns and Johnston discuss concerns and paradoxes of how parents, particularly mothers, teach their children about meat-eating and where their food comes from. Pétursson provides an ethnographic study of an organic food store in Iceland in order to understand how interactions between consumers and producers promotes trust and the consumption of organic food. Hoey and Sponseller explore the perspectives and motivations of key individuals within alternative food networks in Michigan. Saulters, Hendrickson and Chaddad interview social entrepreneurs within the alternative food system in order to understand how they perceive notions of fairness. Gheller examines the public debates regarding large-scale land acquisitions in Canada. Tiraieyari and Krauss study the motivations of Malaysian university students to participate in a voluntary urban agricultural program. Mercado, Hjortsø and Honig examine the challenges to small rural producers in the Bolivian Altiplan of complying with public food safety regulations. Theis et al. examine differences between men and women in the rights to use, control, profit from and sell irrigation technologies in smallholder households in Africa. Cafer and Rikoon assess the effectiveness of extension and other government programs for promoting agricultural innovations and improving smallholder livelihoods in Ethiopia. Tavenner and Crane examine gender differences in the marketing of milk by Western Kenyan smallholder farming households. Grey and Newman assess the interrelationships among food sovereignty, the culinary cultures of Indigenous Peoples and liberal multiculturalism through case studies in Canada and Peru. There are also seven book reviews in this issue.

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My new book is out

Ethical tensions imageMy new book, Ethical Tensions from New Technology: The Case of Agricultural Biotechnology, has just been released. As stated in the back-cover blurb: The introduction of new technologies can be controversial, especially when they create ethical tensions as well as winners and losers among stakeholders and interest groups. While ethical tensions resulting from the genetic modification of crops and plants and their supportive gene technologies have been apparent for decades, persistent challenges remain. This book explores the contemporary nature, type, extent and implications of ethical tensions resulting from agricultural biotechnology specifically and technology generally. There are four main arenas of ethical tensions: public opinion, policy and regulation, technology as solutions to problems, and older versus new technologies. Contributions focus on one or more of these arenas by identifying the ethical tensions technology creates and articulating emerging fault lines and, where possible, viable solutions.

As an edited book, I have solicited contributions from scholars all over the world. Here is the table of contents:

Introduction: Ethical tensions and new technology: An overview in the context of agricultural biotechnology
Part 1: Public opinion and interest
1: Ethical tensions from a “science alone” approach in communicating GE science to consumers, by Jane Kolodinsky (University of Vermont)
2: Against the (GM) grain: ethical tensions and agro-biotechnology activism in the United States, Bradley Martin Jones (Washington University in St. Louis)
3: The use and abuse of the term GMO in the “common weal rhetoric” against the application of modern biotechnology in agriculture, by Philipp Aerni (University of Zurich)
4: Collaborating with the enemy? A view from Down Under on GM research partnerships, by Rachel A. Ankeny (University of Adelaide), Heather J. Bray (University of Adelaide) and Kelly A. McKinley (University of Adelaide)
Part 2: Policy and regulation
5: Three models of public opinion and public interest for agricultural biotechnology: precautionary, conventional, and accommodative, by Duane Windsor (Rice University)
6: Genetically modified organisms in food: ethical tensions and the labeling initiative, by Debra M. Strauss (Fairfield University)
7: Ethical tensions in regulation of agricultural biotechnology and its impact on policy outcomes: evidences from the U.S. and India, by Deepthi E. Kolady (South Dakota State University) and Shivendra Kumar Srivastava (ICAR-National Institute of Agricultural Economics and Policy Research)
Part 3: Technological fix criticism
8: Technological pragmatism: navigating the ethical tensions created by agricultural biotechnology, by Dane Scott (University of Montana)
9: Absolute hogwash: assemblage and the new breed of animal biotechnology, by Katie M. MacDonald (University of Guelph)
Part 4: New versus old technology
10: Nature-identical outcomes, artificial processes: governance of CRISPR/Cas genome editing as an ethical challenge, by Frauke Pirscher (Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg), Bartosz Bartkowski (UFZ – Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research), Insa Theesfeld (Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg) and Johannes Timaeus (University of Kassel)
11: New technology, cognitive bias and ethical tensions in entrepreneurial commercialization: the case of CRISPR, by Desmond Ng (Texas A&M University) and Harvey S. James, Jr. (University of Missouri)
Part 5: Mediating ethical tensions
12: New technology, ethical tensions and the mediating role of translational research, by Corinne Valdivia (University of Missouri), Harvey S. James, Jr. (University of Missouri) and Roberto Quiroz (International Potato Center)

Don’t wait to order your copy from the publisher (here), Amazon (here) or wherever fine books are sold.

The next issue of Agriculture and Human Values is now available

AHV_10460

The next issue of Agriculture and Human Values, volume 35, issue 2, has now been published online (here). This issue contains 15 regular articles as well as seven book reviews and a list of new books received.

Here is a summary of the research articles: Reid and Rout explore how the Western notion of sustainability auditing is implemented in indigenous Māori businesses in New Zealand. Bennett considers the application of ethical consumerism theory to semi-legal sectors of the economy, such as recreational marijuana use. Navin and Dieterle critique efforts to incorporate food sovereignty principles and activities directed to developing countries into the developed countries. Soleri provides an overview of the characteristics and function of farmer seed banks in California. Church et al study the perceptions of climate change risk in a study of agricultural advisors in the Midwest United States. Calo provides a critique of the USDA’s Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program. Benedek, Fertő and Molnár examine the characteristics of farmers who prefer farmers markets governed by contracts and farmers markets with restrictions on locality in their study of Hungarian farmers. Whitney et al examine spatial, environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the agrobiodiversity of homegardens in Uganda. Pincus et al examine how smallholder farmers in Uganda gain new knowledge about soil fertility and management processes. Rotz studies the contrasting and intersecting identities, spaces and narratives of participants within conventional and alternative food systems in Canada. Kaufmann and Vogl examine the challenges that Participatory Guarantee Systems face, with a particular focus on cases from Mexico. Misra studies how agricultural modernization and commercialization contribute to rural malnutrition in Bangladesh. Catacora-Vargas, et al, review the literature on socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops. O’Neill reviews Inuit cultural practices regarding the hunting of seals and the effect of a European ban on seal products on Inuit livelihoods and identity. Finally, Moroney and  Som Castellano examine the different perspectives and opinions and urban and rural residents have about farmland loss in the United States.

“Perspectives on Local Food Systems” virtual issue in Agriculture and Human Values

AHV_10460Agriculture and Human Values has a virtual issue on the topic of “perspectives on local food systems.” This is a collection of 12 articles previously published in the journal on a common theme and made available with free access on the journal’s website (here). I don’t know how long the collection of articles will stay up, but it is a nice set.

Here is my online introduction to the essay collection:

Local food systems are all the rage. Consumers are flocking to farmers markets, which are sprouting up in urban and rural areas. Agriculturally-minded persons are organizing community gardens and urban agricultural projects between, within and even on top of city structures. Social entrepreneurs, scholars, policymakers and farmers are working together and are using alternative food networks as a response to a host of opportunities and challenges in contemporary agricultural systems. Given this context, academic research on alternative food networks focuses on many issues, as evidenced by the breadth and diversity of topics published in Agriculture and Human Values. However, one theme has generated considerable attention among scholars: what do we mean by “local” food systems and is an emphasis on “local” important, necessary or sufficient for a food system?

Over the years, Agriculture and Human Values has published many papers dealing with issues relating to “local” food systems. The collection of papers in this virtual issue of the journal provides a sampling of perspectives and commentary on this topic. In particular, DeLind (2011) and Scharber and Dancs (2016) introduce various critiques and challenges to local food systems. Schnell (2013), Trivette (2015) and Schupp (2016) explore different definitions and geographies of what local means. Trivette (2017), Albrecht and Smithers (2017) and Papaoikonomou and Ginieis (2017) consider how and why local food systems have value over other food systems structures. Cleveland, et al. (2015) and Laforge, et al. (2017) write about governance issues relating to local food provisioning. Finally, Mount (2012) and Clark and Inwood (2016) examine the possibility and challenges of scaling up various aspects of local food systems.

Here is the collection of papers:

 

The next issue of Agriculture and Human Values is now in print

AHV_10460The next issue of Agriculture and Human Values, volume 35, issue 1, has now been published and is also available online (here). This issue contains 16 regular articles as well as six book reviews and a list of new books received.

Here is a summary of the research articles: Chiles and Fitzgerald conduct an historical assessment of the social norms relating to meat consumption in Western society. McClintock and Simpson identify typologies of motivations for participating in urban agricultural activities. Houssou et at describe the evolution of farming systems in Ghana. Albrecht and Smithers explore ways of fostering improved “reconnections” of producers and consumers of food. Klimek et al contrast the organizational structures and values of farmers markets in Minneapolis and Vienna. Huth et al study the perceptions of Australian farmers about the prospects of co-existing with coal seam extraction firms. Sseguya et al examine the role of social capital in improving food security in a sample of households from rural Uganda. Lehrer and Sneegas examine the perspectives of stakeholders on pesticide use in the tree fruit industry in the western United States. Hodgins and Fraser consider options for increasing the participation of low-income consumers in alternative food networks. Coq-Huelva et al examine how quality control and production norms differ in developed (Western) and developing countries, using cocoa production in Ecuadorian Amazonia as a case study. Gupta describes and explains the evolution of the anti-GMO activism in Hawai’i. Powell and Wittman study ways that farm to school programs can promote food sovereignty in a North American context. Dillon et al evaluate factors affecting improved dairy herd management practices. Hidayat et al propose a means of evaluating the governance sustainable palm oil production. Zepeda examines reasons why people experiencing food insecurity do not utilize food local and available food pantries in the U.S. Westengen, et al examine the role of framing narratives about conservation agriculture on agrarian change in Zambia.

Monkey business

An argument made against the theory of evolution is that it is improbable, if not impossible, for there to be random mutations in genes sufficient enough to result in the development of humans from, say, apes. As an analogy, some refer to what is known as the Infinite Monkey Theorem. If there were an infinite number of monkeys typing randomly on a keyboard over a sufficient amount of time, could one eventually produce the Bible or the works of Shakespeare? Attempts to demonstrate the plausibility of monkeys typing out works of literature using computer technology have shown that it can happen. Since it is plausible, then the theory of evolution as currently understood is plausible, too, so the argument goes.

Michael Shermer, in his book, The Mind of the Market, explains how this works within the theory of evolution. The requisite principle is called “variation plus cumulative selection.” The idea is that when evolutionary processes get a gene mutation right, it saves the “correct” mutation and then moves on until the next “correct” mutation occurs, at which time evolutionary processes save that one, on and on until you get the complete works of Shakespeare (so to speak). For instance, random typing can produce the phrase “To be or not to be” if, once a random “T” is typed, it is flagged or saved until a random “O” is typed, and so on. Shermer gives this illustration of random typing:

wieTskewkOsdfeB92uE2OseRdl7jeNkseOdseTe3r22TsweOsxBwxseE …

which, if you look for the bolded capital letters, contains “T O B E O R N O T T O B E …”

Interesting idea. But, as I was reading Shermer’s book, it occurred to me that his explanation actually demonstrates the requirement for a God. Think about it. How does a computer program mimicking the random typing of monkeys know when the typers gets the right letters or words unless that was programmed into the software initially? How does the non-random selection process know when to say to the typing monkeys “STOP! There is the letter T we need. Now proceed again. … Wait! STOP! There is the O we need …”? We know to look for the T, O, B, E, etc, to complete the phrase “To be or not to be” because we have the advantage of already knowing how the story ends. Someone has to know what is correct and how and when to save things, if we are to accept the idea of a non-random cumulative saving mechanism. There is nothing in the evolutionary theory, especially once “variation plus cumulative selection” is added, that can explain to me how random mutations can correctly accumulate sufficiently over time for human consciousness to evolve, unless something along the way knew what to save and when.

Scientists love to invoke Occam’s Razor, which says that when faced with two or more explanations for an effect, the simpler one is preferable. So, which is a simpler explanation for humans? Random typing by monkeys with an unexplained non-random cumulative saving mechanism, or a God directing the affairs of things? The answer seems obvious to me.

Another issue of Agriculture and Human Values is now published

AHV_10460The latest issue of the academic journal I edit, volume 34, issue 4, of Agriculture and Human Values, has been published online (here). This issue contains nine regular articles, a special symposium, Leland Glenna’s presidential address delivered at the 2017 meetings of the Agriculture, Food and Human Values Society presidential address, and eight book reviews.

Here is a summary of the research articles and the symposium: McInnes et al present results of a survey exploring the potential convergence of different elements of alternative food networks in Canadian food systems. Bain and Selfa assess the relative merits and contrasting approaches of organic and non-GMO labeling organizations. Ellison et al assess the relative rankings of consumers of seven common claims about food products. Miaralles et al study the nature and role of sharing in alternative food networks. Rossi et al link food-, health- and lifestyle-related behaviors to CSA participation. Nichols examines the development and distribution of diets in India that are high in calories, fats and protein. Spilkova compares community gardens in Prague, Czechia, to those found in other developed countries. Bacon and Baker evaluate private food assistance programs in the US, UK and other countries. Porter et al assess the willingness-to-pay of students for food with ‘real’ qualities. Finally, a collection of papers edited by Daniela Gottschlich, Tanja Molders and Martina Padmanbhan focus on feminist perspectives on human–nature relations.